On August 29, 1533, according to the New York Times, "the last Incan king, Atahualpa, was murdered on orders from Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro." Pizarro's 1532 arrival in Nueva Castilla, or Peru, marked the beginning of the end for the Incan kingdom. Here's an account of the "Dialogue of Cajamarca" (a "dialogue" in only the loosest sense of the term) between Pizarro and Atahulapa ("Ataw Wallpa" in this text) taken from the introduction to Titu Cusi: A 16th Century Account of the Conquest, published by the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies and distributed by Harvard University Press:
Inqa Ataw Wallpa was returning to Cuzco, after having quelled rebellions in the northern Tawantinsuyu and celebrated his victory over Waskar in Quito, and had stopped in Cajamarca to heal a battle wound when he learned of the Spanish presence on the northern Peruvian coast. The conquistadors, led by Pizarro and Almagro, had already ravaged villages. The encounter between Ataw Wallpa, Francisco Pizarro, Fray Vincente de Valverde and their indigenous interpreter in Cajamarca, on November 16, 1532, is also known as the "Dialogue of Cajamarca" and has become symbolic of the conquest and the traumatic clash between cultures. More than thirty thousand unarmed men, women and children had congregated in the main square of Cajamarca to see the new Inqa and his entourage receive little over a hundred sixty conquistadors who had prepared an ambush. There are conflicting accounts of the meeting between the conquistadors and the Inqa, but the recurring theme is the "sacrilege" committed by Ataw Wallpa when he was presented with the Bible as a source of divine authority that he was forced to accept, along with the Holy Roman Emperor Carlos V as his overlord. When Ataw Wallpa threw the Bible to the ground, the conquistadors opened fire and the Inqa was taken prisoner. This "dialogue" and subsequent massacre has become symbolic for the entire conquest of Peru.
Titu Cusi is an extraordinary book in that it's a first-person account of the conquest published only forty years after it occurred, making it one of the most important primary sources we have for this extraordinarily consequential series of events. Packed with dramatic tension, the book in some sense reads more like a stage play than a standard historical narrative--here we have the actual words spoken by the actual participants in the action. It's amazing that something so old can be so riveting, but Titu Cusi has got it all--murder, tragedy, intrigue--and best of all, it all really happened.